Dalcroze For Children · Teaching

1st-2nd Grade: Skills and Objectives Associated with Rhythm (Part 2 of 4)

Second in a series of posts describing what a typical class might cover during the year.

Now we get to the heart of the matter. This is a formidable list, and not all that different from a list I might make for adult classes. Does this mean the children mastered each of these things? No. But then again I haven’t mastered them either! In the Dalcroze approach we aim for spiral learning. Each week we visit skills, concepts, phenomena over and over in different ways to accumulate many different kinds of experience and to allow each subject area to acquire personal meaning.

Some of the items on the list we may have only worked with once or twice (beats divided into 4, or dotted quarters, for example). Others I manage to work into almost every class (synchronizing locomotor movements to the beat of improvised or recorded music, for example). I hope that my students eventually have an expansive repertoire of knowing these musical subjects. It’s way more than learning to read notation, though that is one of the goals. Yes, I want them to recognize that the symbol of a quarter note is one way to represent the beat (actually there are many other ways!), but more importantly that they know that a steady beat in music has the potential for so much expressive power: beats can speed up, slow down, be strong, be light, pause, disappear and reappear in unexpected places, and on and on. And that’s just the beat! Here’s the list:

  • Dynamics:
    • express dynamics in different parts of the body
    • move easily with different types of weight
    • associate different types of weight with a range of dynamics
    • combine any tempo with any dynamic
    • change dynamics on command
      • slowly
      • suddenly
    • lead a change of dynamics
    • association of language and notation
  • Beat:
    • be able to synchronize different locomotor movements to the beat of improvised or recorded music
    • stop and start on command at the same tempo
    • synchronize to
      • another
      • the group
      • music
    • do something for a specific number of beats: up to 8
    • express beats in different parts of the body
    • relate a beat to notation (the bottom number of a time signature)
  • Rests
    • Perform specific actions during beat-long rests in different parts of the measure (simple meter)
    • Experience different expressive possibilities of longer rests in music
  • Division (durations smaller than the beat) in simple (beat divided into 2’s) and compound (beat divided into 3’s)
    • differentiate one set of divisions of 2 or 3 from the basic beat
    • step the beat and clap a division of 2
    • move divisions of 2 from a beat played on the piano
    • recognize notation with quarter note as beat
    • recognize notation with a dotted quarter as beat
  • Subdivision in simple meter (beats divided into 4)
    • recognize aurally
    • play simple patterns with beat and division
    • recognize notation with quarter note as beat
  • Multiples (durations longer than the beat)
    • perform an action for a specific number of beats
    • Recognize notation for multiples of 2, 3 and 4 with quarter as beat
    • step beat while clapping a multiple of 2, 3 or 4; same with hands and feet reversed.
    • Hearing beats, perform an action lasting 2, 3 or 4 beats.
    • Match durations in movement or on an instrument that lasts 2, 3 or 4 beats
  • Meter (groupings of beats):
    • duple, triple, quadruple in simple (beat divided into 2’s)
      • distinguish between the three groupings aurally
      • recognize and understand time signatures of x/4 (top number of a time signature)
      • Step beat and clap downbeat
        • change between meters (2/4 3/4 4/4)
          • on command
          • in response to the music
      • Express meters of 2, 3 and 4 in movement in place
    • Compound duple (beat divided into 3’s)
      • move to beat, division and trochee (skipping) rhythms
      • respond to music that changes between compound duple and simple duple
      • move to music containing subdivisions in compound (e.g. sixteenth notes in 6/8)
  • Rhythmic Patterns
    • Simple meter patterns
      • be able to identify aurally, step and play on percussion
        • Anapest (short short long)
        • Dactylic (long short short)
    • compound meter patterns

Part 3 next week will focus on subject areas related to pitch.

Musical Subjects · Teaching

Subdivision, Simple Meter

Note: this is the first in a series of posts about the musical subjects I am working with in my classrooms and thinking about as a teacher and musician. If I continue long enough, I’ll eventually index and categorize them. Each one will include a subject, some notes, descriptions of some activities and  some target skills for different educational contexts, of course with an eye to Dalcroze practice.


In music education we talk of dividing and subdividing the beat. But when I play, I don’t really think of dividing anything. It feels more like simply playing faster or slower and often in the context of the prevailing beat and tempo. Dividing is a physical act: we divide a pie into pieces. Or it’s a calculation: everybody gets two pieces. But I don’t really experience those aspects in time, as such.

Though the metaphor of division is strained, I still use it since it is so widespread. I say division (in both simple and compound meters) to mean a primary level (e.g. 2 eighth notes with a quarter note beat) and subdivision to mean a secondary level (e.g. 4 sixteenth notes with a quarter note beat). (A quirk I picked up from my colleague, Jeremy Dittus, in his quest for specificity!)

Subdivisions in music are often too fast to move by stepping. They can be performed by speaking or with smaller body parts like fingers.

Children can experience subdivisions as a single event, lasting a beat, or as a continuous event, that is, a kind of continuous shift. Even young children are very sensitive to this. I can see by the way they respond that when I play with subdivisions the music feels faster to them. It is, but technically, as long as there hasn’t been a tempo change at the beat level, it actually isn’t! I look for ways to draw this truth out.

Even the young can hear one set of subdivisions if played the right way. The easiest way to test this is to play an inhibition game: they move with the music when they hear one set of subdivisions, and hold when they hear another set, toggling back and forth. (I avoid saying ‘freeze dance’, which has become popular because I don’t want them to freeze, just hold themselves still.) By changing the character, tempo, style, mood of the music the game does not become tiring. The children can even suggest ways to move, though at some point you will have to ask someone for “a slow way”. I imagine that even youngest children, can feel the relationships between beat and subdivision when we do this. There will be plenty of time to articulate it later when their math skills have caught up. Hopefully I am making the lives of their private teachers and band directors that much easier when they begin to encounter “1-ee-and-ah” in their written music. Older children (late elementary) love this game, too. They love to be right, and they love to detect things according to rules. This gives them both plus the opportunity to stand still, which they value much more than their younger counterparts.

To introduce the subject to my early and late elementary classes, I used the first movement of Mozart’s Symphony No. 1, whose theme is built on a very declaratory 1-3-5 statement, ending with two sets of subdivisions. I gave the kids a movement task (“find joints in your body and move and mirror your partner”). I asked them to change partners whenever the theme appears, which provided some hilarity as the theme kind sticks out like a sore thumb each time. (Give him a break — he was nine when he wrote it!) I wish the theme emerged just a bit more for this purpose, but if was fun anyway and primed them to listen for both subdivisions and the major tonic triad.

Target Skills:

Early Elementary:

  • Recognize one set
  • experience as continuous event
  • associate with
    • a rhythmic language
    • notation in simple meter, with quarter note beat
  • create patterns
  • improvise with

Late Elementary (all the above plus):

  • Understand the relationship to the beat and division
  • Perform on command in movement that travels and movement in place
  • notate in at least two different meters
  • read patterns
Dalcroze For Children · Teaching

What We’re Working On

Parent: “What did you do in class today?”
Child: “I was a cat.”
Parent: “Oh.”

It is difficult for children to express exactly what they are ‘learning’ in a Dalcroze classroom. Having heard many exchanges which ended like the one above, I am writing to keep you more informed about what exactly we goes on in the room after we take off our socks and shoes.

Of course, in the mind of the child the most important thing we did probably was that he became a cat. And not just any cat, but one who plays, prowls, chases mice and catches one for dinner. The class attempts to take every possible advantage of a child’s passion for drama and role-play. While he was busy being a cat, he was also moving to music that moved very softly (the prowl), music that moved very quickly and lightly (the chase), and music that slowly crescendo-ed to a loud accent (the pounce).

Experiences like these are meant to align the child’s sense of music with the way she naturally moves. This will, hopefully, inform the way she perceives and responds to music, and the way she might engage a musical instrument.

In these posts I’ll attempt to describe some of the things we accomplish in class over the course of the year. I hope to pass along ideas for following up the experiences that we have had, and let you in on some of the discoveries that seem to happen each week. I will welcome your comments, questions and discussion. You can expect a new posting every month or so.

The work for the 4-5 year-old groups is sometimes different from that in the 5-6 year-old groups. But there are some general things that all ages focus on, especially in the beginning weeks.

In a eurhythmics class sound equals movement, and vice versa. Many initial experiences are meant to help the student begin to discover this for himself. Students will hear music that walks, runs, skips, gallops or marches. Most do not need to be asked to move appropriately to what they hear – it is most often their natural impulse to do so. The students also are given opportunities each week to have the piano match as closely as possible their own improvised movement to give them a deeper experience. To build on these experiences at home, put on music that walks, runs, skips, sneaks, slides, rolls, marches… and see what your child does! (See my previous post that suggests ways to use Saint Seans’ Carnival of the Animals.)

In this first semester, the 4-5 year-old groups will have classes built around basic oppositions: slow and fast, long and short, heavy and light, for example. In the first 30 minutes of class, we will experience the subject in as many ways as possible: songs, stories, and games requiring the students to follow changes in what they hear on the piano or drum. In the last 15 minutes, the students have an opportunity to play or conduct the music themselves. For example, if they have experienced soft walking and loud pouncing, individual students can try these sounds out on the drum while the class responds to what they hear. Or student conductors will create gestures for loud and soft, while the class responds on percussion instruments.

The 5-6 year-old groups will work with these same concepts but within a more structured musical context that will include beat, duration and meter. Games and activities will ask them to recognize and respond to quarters, eighths, and sixteenths. I have begun to teach them a rhythmic ‘language’ to describe what they hear, and we have begun to work on recognizing the notation.

I welcome all questions and comments throughout the year. If there is something specific you would like me to address in a future post, let me know! I look forward to hearing from you!

Michael Joviala